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In issue 309 -
When an Older Parrot Has Never Learned Skilful Flight – Complete Psittacine by Eb Cravens
In issue 309 -
Scarlet Macaws – were they really bred by indigenous people in the 12th century? Rosemary Low asks the question
In issue 309 -
Understanding the link between nutrition, hormonal behaviours and the avian endocrine system, Part 1 – The Holistic Parrot by Leslie Moran
In issue 309 -
The Yellow-eared Parrot – continues to expand its range in Colombia. By David Waugh, Correspondent, Loro Parque Fundación
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Delicious and healthful grapes

Spreads for web Parrots 278 4

The Holistic Parrot by Leslie Moran

This popular global food crop has been the subject of numerous cross-cultural studies bringing like-minded researchers together. Why has this common fruit received so much attention? Grapes provide a particularly rich source of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties, enriching health, that researchers are excited about.

The plant genus Vitis is responsible for giving us about 60 different species, with the most commonly grown being Vitis vinifera. Grape cultivation began about 8,000 years ago in the Near East. Today, this region includes the countries of Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Jordan, Iraq, western Iran, Cyprus, Transcaucasia (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan), and Egypt. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics describe the cultivation of purple grapes, and historic records tell us that the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians, and Romans also grew purple grapes for eating and wine production. From here, grape cultivation easily spread to Europe, North Africa, and North America.

From a 2020 report, the top 10 grape growing countries, in descending order, include China, India, Turkey, European Union, United States, Chile, Peru, Russia, and South Africa. In the 2019 to 2020 growing season table grape production reached a high of 23.4 million tons, an increase of 900,000 tons from the previous year. While total global grape production surpassed 70 million tons. Fresh table grapes can be eaten as a healthy snack, while other varieties can be used for making wine, jam, jelly, grape juice, grape seed oil, and grape seed extract a popular supplement known for its antioxidants properties. Grapes are cultivated in every country around the world with farmers earning more income from this versatile fruit than from other food crops.

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